Friday, 4 October 2013

General Electrical Engineering Questions Set10

1. What is power quality meter ?
Power Quality meters are common in many industrial environment. Small units are now available for home use as well. They give operators the ability to monitor the both perturbations on the power supply, as well as power used within a building, or by a single machine or appliance. In some situations, equipment function and operation is monitored and controlled from a remote location where communication is via modem, or high-speed communication lines.So we can understand the importance of power measurement through power quality meters.

2. What is the different between digital phase converter and ordinary phase converter?
Digital phase converter are a recent development in phase converter technology that utilizes proprietary software in a powerful microprocessor to control solid state power switching components. This microprocessor, called a digital signal processor (DSP), monitors the phase conversion process, continually adjusting the input and output modules of the converter to maintain perfectly balanced three-phase power under all load conditions.

3. Explain the operation of variable frequency transformer?
A variable frequency transformer is used to transmit electricity between two asynchronous alternating current domains. A variable frequency transformer is a doubly-fed electric machine resembling a vertical shaft hydroelectric generator with a three-phase wound rotor, connected by slip rings to one external ac power circuit. A direct-current torque motor is mounted on the same shaft. Changing the direction of torque applied to the shaft changes the direction of power flow; with no applied torque, the shaft rotates due to the difference in frequency between the networks connected to the rotor and stator.The variable frequency transformer behaves as a continuously adjustable phase-shifting transformer. It allows control of the power flow between two networks .

4. What is the main use of rotary phase converter ?
Rotary phase converter will be converting single phase power into true balanced 3 phase power,so it is often called as single phase to three phase converter . Often the advantages of 3 phase motors, and other 3 phase equipment, make it worthwhile to convert single phase to 3 phase so that small and large consumers need not want to pay for the extra cost of a 3 phase service but may still wish to use 3 phase equipment.

5. Use of switch mode power converter in real-time basis?
Switch mode power converter can be used in the following 5 different ways
1) step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Buck Converter or Step-Down SMPS,
2)step up an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Boost Converter or Step-Up SMPS,
3)step up or step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage,
4)invert the input dc voltage using usually a circuit such as the Cuk converter, and
5)produce multiple dc outputs using a circuit such as the fly-back converter.

6. Which type of oil is used as a transformer oil?
Transformer oil, or insulating oil, is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. It is used in oil filled transformers, some types of high voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high voltage switches and circuit breakers. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant.
Well into the 170s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)s were often used as a dielectric fluid since they are not flammable. They are toxic, and under incomplete combustion, can form highly toxic products such as furan. Starting in the early 170s, concerns about the toxicity of PCBs have led to their banning in many countries.
Today, non-toxic, stable silicon-based or fluoridated hydrocarbons are used, where the added expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Combustion-resistant vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and synthetic pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7, C8) esters are also becoming increasingly common as alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil. Esters are non-toxic to aquatic life, readily biodegradable, and have a lower volatility and higher flash points than mineral oil.

7. If we give 2334 A, 540V on Primary side of 1.125 MVA step up transformer, then what will be the Secondary Current, If Secondary Voltage=11 KV?
As we know the Voltage & current relation for transformer-V1/V2 = I2/I1
We Know, VI= 540 V; V2=11KV or 11000 V; I1= 2334 Amps.
By putting these value on Relation-
540/11000= I2/2334
So,I2 = 114.5 Amps

8. what are the points to be consider for MCB(miniature circuit breaker selection?
I(L)*1.25=I(MAX) maximum current. Mcb specification are done on maximum current flow in circuit.

9. what is the full form of KVAR?
We know there are three types of power in Electrical as Active, apparent & reactive. So KVAR is stand for ``Kilo Volt Amps with Reactive component.

10. What is excitation?
Excitation is applying an external voltage to DC shunt coil in DC motors.


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