Saturday, 26 October 2013

Computer Science Engineering

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1) The time for which a piece of equipment operates is called?
a) Seek time
b) Effective time
c) Access time
d) Real time
e) None of the above
Answer:   b
2) ____ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data that is waiting to be processed, stored, or output?
a) Memory
b) Storage
c) Input
d) Output
Answer : a
3) A computer falls into the ____ category if it is, at the time of construction, one of the fastest computers in the world?
a) minicomputer
b) supercomputer
c) microcomputer
d) mainframe
Answer : b
4) The two basic types of record-access methods are?
a) Sequential and random
b) Sequential and indexed
c) Direct and immediate
d) On-line and real time
Answer   : a
5) The first firm to mass- market a microcomputer as a personal computer was
a) IBM
b) Sperry Univac
c) Data General corporation
d) Radio Shack
Answer: c
6) An integrated circuit is?
a) A complicated circuit
b) An integrating device
c) Much costlier than a single transistor
d) Fabricated on a tiny silicon chip
Answer: d
7) A process known as ____________ is used by large retailers to study trends?
a) data mining
b) data selection
c) POS
d) data conversion
Answer: a
8) Which of the following is NOT one of the four major data processing functions of a computer?
a) gathering data
b) processing data into information
c) analyzing the data or information
d) storing the data or information
Answer: c
9) Surgeons can perform delicate operations by manipulating devices through computers instead of manually. This technology is known as?
a) robotics.
b) computer forensics.
c) simulation.
d) forecasting.
Answer: a
10) ____________ is the study of molecules and structures whose size ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers?
a) Nanoscience
b) Microelectrodes
c) Computer forensics
d) Artificial intelligence
Answer: a
11) Computers gather data, which means that they allow users to ____________ data?
a) present
b) input
c) output
d) store
Answer: b
12) The list of coded instructions is called?
a) Computer program
b) Algorithm
c) Flowchart
d) Utility programs
e) None of the above
Answer: a
13) The two broad categories of software are?
a) word processing and spreadsheet.
b) transaction and application.
c) Windows and Mac OS.
d) system and application.
Answer: d
14) Which of the following languages is more suited to a structured program?
a) PL/1
b) FORTRAN
c) BASIC
d) PASCAL
e) None of the above
Answer :d
15) A computer assisted method for the recording and analyzing of existing or hypothetical systems is?
a) Data transmission
b) Data flow
c) Data capture
d) Data processing
e) None of the above
Answer : b
16) The microcomputer, Intel MCS-80 is based on the widely used Intel?
a) 8080 microprocessor
b) 8085 microprocessor
c) 8086 microprocessor
d) 8082 microprocessor
e) None of the above
Answer : a
17) Which output device is used for translating information from a computer into pictorial form on paper?
a) Mouse
b) Plotter
c) Touch panel
d) Card punch
e) None of the above
Answer : b
18) An assembler is a?
a) Program
b) Person who assemble the parts
c) Symbol
d) Language
e) None of the above
Answer : a
19) Which type of system puts the user into direct conversation with the computer through a keyboard?
a) Real time processing
b) Interactive computer
c) Batch processing
d) Time sharing
e) None of the above
Answer:  b
20) A common boundary between two systems is called?
a) Interdiction
b) Interface
c) Interdiction
d) Surface
e) None of the above
Answer: b

Friday, 4 October 2013

Important Electrical Engineering Questions

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1. What is the voltage gain or transfer function of amplifier?
Vout/Vin

2. What does the KVAR means?
The KVAR indicates the electrical power. KVAR means “Kilo Volt Amperes with Reactive components”

3. Why use the VCB at High Transmission System ? Why can't use ACB?
Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc queching property compare to air because in VCB ,the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air . That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air used as in LT .

4. What is the difference between MCB & MCCB, Where it can be used?
MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition.under voltage and under frequency may be inbuilt. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.

Electrical Engineering Questions

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1. What are the operation carried out in Thermal power station?
 The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine, the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity

2. What is the difference between Electronic regulator and ordinary rheostat regulator for fans?
 The difference between the electronic and ordinary regulator is the fact that in electronic reg. power losses tend to be less because as we minimize the speed the electronic reg. give the power necessary for that particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat type reg. the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved. In electronic regulator triac is employed for speed control. by varying the firing angle speed is controlled but in rheostatic control resistance is decreased by steps to achievespeed control.

3. What is 2 phase motor?
 A two phase motor is often a motor with the the starting winding and the running winding have a phase split. e. g; ac servo motor. where the auxiliary winding and the control winding have a phase split of 90 degree.

4. What does quality factor depend on in resonance?
Quality factor q depends on frequency and bandwidth.

5. What are the types of power in electrical power?
 There are normally three types of power are counted in electrical power. They are,
• Apparent power
• Active power
• Reactive power

6. What are the advantages of VSCF wind electrical system?
Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are:
• No complex pitch changing mechanism is needed.
• Aero turbine always keeps going at maximum efficiency point.
• Extra energy in the high wind speed region of the speed - duration curve can be extracted
• Significant reduction in aerodynamic stresses, which are associated with constant - speed operation.

7. What is slip in an induction motor?
Slip can be defined as the distinction between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’.

8. Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit?
Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connection are taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for the particular circuit (i.e load) only.So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off.

9. State the difference between generator and alternator?
Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.

10. What is ACSR cable and where we use it?
ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & distribution.

Interview Questions for Electrical Engineering freshers

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1. What's electric traction?
Traction implies with the electric power for traction system i. e. for railways, trams, trolleys etc. electric traction implies use of the electricity for all these. Now a day, magnetic traction is also utilised for bullet trains. Essentially dc motors are utilized for electric traction systems.

2. What is “pu” in EE?
Pu stands for per unit in power system. (pu = actual value/ base value)

3. Define stepper motor. What is the use of stepper motor?
 The motor which work or act on the applied input pulse in it, is called as stepper motor.This stepper motor is under the category of synchronous motor, which often does not fully depend of complete cycle. It likes to works in either direction related to steps. for this purpose it mainly used in automation parts.

4. What is a differential amplifier? Also, explain CMRR.
Differential Amplifier: The amplifier, which is used to amplify the voltage difference between two input-lines neither of which is grounded, is called differential amplifier. This reduces the amount of noise which is injected into the amplifier, because any noise appearing simultaneously on both the input-terminals as the amplifying circuitry rejects it being a common mode signal.
CMRR: It can be defined as the ratio of differential voltage-gain to common made voltage gain. If a differential amplifier is perfect, CMRR will be infinite because in that case common mode voltage gain would be zero.

5.  What is use of lockout relay in ht voltage?
 A lock-out relay is generally placed in line before or after the e-stop switch so the power can be shut off at one central location. This relay is powered by the same electrical source as the control power which is operated by a key lock switch. The relay itself may have up to 24 contact points within the unit itself. This allows the control power for multiple machines to be locked out by the turn of a single key switch.

6. How can you start-up the 40w tube lite with 230v AC/DC without using any choke/Coil?
 It's possible with Electronic choke. otherwise it's not possible to ionize the particles in tube. light, with normal voltage.

7. What types domain of Laplace transforms? What behavior can Laplace transform predict how the system work?
Types domain of Laplace transforms is s-domain, Laplace transforms provide a method to find position, acceleration or voltage the system will have.

8. In the magnetic fluxes, what is the role of armature reaction?
 The armature flux has an important role for the running condition. This armature flux can oppose the main flux or it may support the main flux for better running condition. This effect of supporting and opposing of main flux to armature flux is called armature reaction.

9. Explain thin film resistors and wire-wound resistors
Thin film resistors- It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate. Desired results are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length. During this process, the value of the resistance is monitored closely and cutting of grooves is stopped as soon as the desired value of resistance is obtained.
Wire wound resistors – length of wire wound around an insulating cylindrical core are known as wire wound resistors. These wires are made of materials such as Constantan and Manganin because of their high resistivity, and low temperature coefficients. The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel

10. whats the one main difference between UPS & inverter ? And electrical engineering & electronics engineering ?
uninterrupt power supply is mainly use for short time . means according to ups VA it gives backup. ups is also two types : on line and offline . online ups having high volt and amp for long time backup with with high dc voltage.but ups start with v dc with 7 amp. but inverter is startwith v,24,dc to 36v dc and 0amp to 180amp battery with long time backup.

Interview Questions in Electrical Engineering pdf free download

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1. Why electricity in India is in the multiples of 11 like 11kv, 22kv, 33kv  ?
Transformer Induced voltage equation contains 4.44 factor.
E=4.44*f*T*phi
E -Induced emf per phase
T -number of turns
f -frequency
phi -maximum flux per pole
From the equation we see that E is proportional to 4.4 and it is in turn multiple of 11.
So always transmission voltage is multiple of 11

2. Why we use ac system in India why not dc ?
Firstly, the output of power stations comes from a rotary turbine, which by it's nature is AC and therefore requires no power electronics to convert to DC. Secondly it is much easier to change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution. thirdly the cost of plant associated with AC transmission
(circuit breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the equivilant of DC transmission AC transmission provides a number of technical advantages. When a fault on the network occurs, a large fault current  occurs. In an AC system this becomes much easier to interupt, as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.

3. Which type of motor is used in trains, what is the rating of supply used explain Working principal?
Dc series is in the trains to get high starting torque while starting of the trains and operating voltage is 1500v dc.

4. Battery banks are in connected in series or parallel and why?
Battery banks are always connected in series in order to get a multiplied voltage where the AH or current capacity remaining same. Ex : 24 nos. 2V,200Ah batteries connected in series will give 48V,200Ah output (AH = Ampere hours)

5. What is inrush current?
Inrush current is the current drawn by a piece of electrically operated equipment when power is first applied. It can occur with AC or DC powered equipment, and can happen even with low supply voltages.

6. In a Tap changing transformer where is the tap connected, is it connected in the primary side or secondary side?
Tapings are connected to high voltage winding side, because of low current. If we connect tapings to low voltage side, sparks will produce while tap changing operation due to high current.

7. Why transformer ratings are in kva?
 Since the power factor of transformer is dependent on load we only define VA rating and does not include power factor .In case of motors, power factor depend on construction and hence rating of motors is in KWatts and include power factor.

8. What is difference between fuse and breaker?
 Fuses are burned at the time of over current flows in the circuit but breakers are just open(not burn) at the time of over current flow. Fuses are used in only one time but breakers are used by multiple number of times.

9. What is the difference between delta-delta, delta-star transformer?
Delta-delta transformer is used at generating station or a receiving station for Change of Voltage (i,e) generally it is used where the Voltage is high & Current is low.Delta-star is a distribution kind of transformer where from secondary star neutral is taken as a return path and this configuration is used for Step down voltage phenomena.

10. Capacitor is load free component but why ampere meter shows current when capacitor bank breaker close?
 As we know that Electrical is having two type of load, Active and Reactive .Capacitor is a reactive load which is not considering as a load,& its factor is Isin@ .Meter is design based on Current RMS value because of it meter is showing the current RMS value.

Interview Questions for Electrical Engineering Students

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1. In three pin plug 6 Amp. 220v AC rating. why earth pin diameter is higher than other two pin? what its purpose ?
Because Current flow in the conductor is inversely proportional to the conductor diameter. So if any short circuits occur in the system first high currents bypassed in the Earthling terminal.( R=Pl/a area of the conductor increases resistance
value decreases)

2. Difference between megger test equipment and contact resistance meter test instruments?
 Megger test equipment used to measure cable electric resistance, conductor continuity, phase identification where as contact resistance meter test instruments used to measure low resistance like relays ,contactors.

3. When we connect the large capacitor bank in series ?
we connect large capacitor bank in series to improve the voltage power supply at the load end in balanced transmission line when there is considerable voltage drop along the balanced transmission line due to high impedance of the line.So in order to bring the voltage at the load terminals within its limits (i.e (+ or - %6 )of the rated high terminal voltage )the large capacitor bank is used in series.

4. What is electrical diversity factor in electrical installations?
Electrical diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system, or part of a system, to the maximum demand of the whole system, or part of the system, under consideration. Electrical diversity factor is usually more than one.

5. Why field rheostat is kept in minimum position while armature rheostat at maximum position?
In motors at the time of starting the armature resistance is introduced to reduce the high starting current and the field resistance is kept minimum to have high starting torque.

6. Why computer humming sound occurred in HT transmission line?
This computer humming sound is coming due to ionization (breakdown of air into charged particles) of air around transmission conductor. This effect is called as Corona effect, and it is considered as power loss.

7. What is rated speed?
At the time of motor taking normal current (rated current)the speed of the motor is called rated speed. It is a speed at which any system take small current and give maximum efficiency.

8. What is different between resistance grounding system and resistance earthing system?
Resistance grounding system means connecting the neutral point of the load to the ground to carry the residual current in case of unbalanced conditions through the neutral to the ground whereas resistance earthing system is done in an electric equipment in order to protect he equipment in occurrence of fault in the system.

9. Why should be the frequency 50 Hz 60Hz only why not others like 45, 95 56 or anything , why should we maintain the frequency constant if so why it is only 50 Hz 60Hz?
We can have the frequency at any frequency you like, but than you must also make your own motors,high voltage transformers or any other equipment you want to use.We maintain the frequency at 50hz or 60hz because the world maintains a standard at 50 /60hz and the equipments are are made to operate at these frequency.

10. How to determine alternating current frequency?
Zero crossings of the sine wave to trigger a monostable (pulse generator) is a way to determine alternating current frequency. A fixed width pulse is generated for each cycle. Thus there are "n" pulses per second, each with with a constant energy. The more pulses there are per second, the more the energy. The pulses are integrated (filtered or averaged) to get a steady DC voltage which is proportional to frequency. This voltage can then be displayed on an analogue or digital voltmeter, indicating frequency. This method is more suitable than a direct counter, as it can get good accuracy in a second or so.

General Electrical Engineering Questions Set10

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1. What is power quality meter ?
Power Quality meters are common in many industrial environment. Small units are now available for home use as well. They give operators the ability to monitor the both perturbations on the power supply, as well as power used within a building, or by a single machine or appliance. In some situations, equipment function and operation is monitored and controlled from a remote location where communication is via modem, or high-speed communication lines.So we can understand the importance of power measurement through power quality meters.

2. What is the different between digital phase converter and ordinary phase converter?
Digital phase converter are a recent development in phase converter technology that utilizes proprietary software in a powerful microprocessor to control solid state power switching components. This microprocessor, called a digital signal processor (DSP), monitors the phase conversion process, continually adjusting the input and output modules of the converter to maintain perfectly balanced three-phase power under all load conditions.

3. Explain the operation of variable frequency transformer?
A variable frequency transformer is used to transmit electricity between two asynchronous alternating current domains. A variable frequency transformer is a doubly-fed electric machine resembling a vertical shaft hydroelectric generator with a three-phase wound rotor, connected by slip rings to one external ac power circuit. A direct-current torque motor is mounted on the same shaft. Changing the direction of torque applied to the shaft changes the direction of power flow; with no applied torque, the shaft rotates due to the difference in frequency between the networks connected to the rotor and stator.The variable frequency transformer behaves as a continuously adjustable phase-shifting transformer. It allows control of the power flow between two networks .

4. What is the main use of rotary phase converter ?
Rotary phase converter will be converting single phase power into true balanced 3 phase power,so it is often called as single phase to three phase converter . Often the advantages of 3 phase motors, and other 3 phase equipment, make it worthwhile to convert single phase to 3 phase so that small and large consumers need not want to pay for the extra cost of a 3 phase service but may still wish to use 3 phase equipment.

5. Use of switch mode power converter in real-time basis?
Switch mode power converter can be used in the following 5 different ways
1) step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Buck Converter or Step-Down SMPS,
2)step up an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Boost Converter or Step-Up SMPS,
3)step up or step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage,
4)invert the input dc voltage using usually a circuit such as the Cuk converter, and
5)produce multiple dc outputs using a circuit such as the fly-back converter.

6. Which type of oil is used as a transformer oil?
Transformer oil, or insulating oil, is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. It is used in oil filled transformers, some types of high voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high voltage switches and circuit breakers. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant.
Well into the 170s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)s were often used as a dielectric fluid since they are not flammable. They are toxic, and under incomplete combustion, can form highly toxic products such as furan. Starting in the early 170s, concerns about the toxicity of PCBs have led to their banning in many countries.
Today, non-toxic, stable silicon-based or fluoridated hydrocarbons are used, where the added expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Combustion-resistant vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and synthetic pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7, C8) esters are also becoming increasingly common as alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil. Esters are non-toxic to aquatic life, readily biodegradable, and have a lower volatility and higher flash points than mineral oil.

7. If we give 2334 A, 540V on Primary side of 1.125 MVA step up transformer, then what will be the Secondary Current, If Secondary Voltage=11 KV?
As we know the Voltage & current relation for transformer-V1/V2 = I2/I1
We Know, VI= 540 V; V2=11KV or 11000 V; I1= 2334 Amps.
By putting these value on Relation-
540/11000= I2/2334
So,I2 = 114.5 Amps

8. what are the points to be consider for MCB(miniature circuit breaker selection?
I(L)*1.25=I(MAX) maximum current. Mcb specification are done on maximum current flow in circuit.

9. what is the full form of KVAR?
We know there are three types of power in Electrical as Active, apparent & reactive. So KVAR is stand for ``Kilo Volt Amps with Reactive component.

10. What is excitation?
Excitation is applying an external voltage to DC shunt coil in DC motors.
 

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